Start Biochemistry a short course tymoczko online dating

Biochemistry a short course tymoczko online dating

The nucleotide contains both a segment of the backbone of the molecule (which holds the chain together) and a nucleobase (which interacts with the other DNA strand in the helix).

For instance, the DNA in the largest human chromosome, chromosome number 1, consists of approximately 220 million base pairs These two long strands entwine like vines, in the shape of a double helix.

DNA) is a molecule that carries the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids; alongside proteins, lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), they are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life.

In a double helix, the direction of the nucleotides in one strand is opposite to their direction in the other strand: the strands are antiparallel.

The asymmetric ends of DNA strands are said to have a directionality of five prime (5′) and three prime (3′), with the 5′ end having a terminal phosphate group and the 3′ end a terminal hydroxyl group.

Within eukaryotic cells DNA is organized into long structures called chromosomes.

During cell division these chromosomes are duplicated in the process of DNA replication, providing each cell its own complete set of chromosomes.

The nitrogenous bases of the two separate polynucleotide strands are bound together, according to base pairing rules (A with T and C with G), with hydrogen bonds to make double-stranded DNA.